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Декабрь 2022

Alasan Melanjutkan Pendidikan Kuliah Di Jerman

Jika kamu tertarik untuk melanjutkan studi ke Eropa tetapi masih bingung keluaran hk negara mana yang ingin kamu tuju, Jerman dapat menjadi salah satu negara yang patut kamu pertimbangkan. Untuk semakin meyakinkan kamu, berikut ini adalah beberapa alasan mengapa Jerman merupakan salah satu destinasi negara yang recommended bagi kamu yang ingin melanjutkan studi di Eropa.

Jerman Termasuk Negara Eropa Yang Aman

Keamanan merupakan salah satu faktor penting ssebelum Anda dan orangtua Anda memutuskan untuk tinggal di suatu tempat yang baru. Maka dari itu, alasan kuliah di Jerman yang paling utama yaitu negara Jerman termasuk negara yang aman di benua Eropa. Selain merupakan negara aman, Jerman juga memiliki kualitas kehidupan yang sangat baik. Hal tersebutlah yang menjadikan negara Jerman termasuk negara yang rendah angka kriminalitasnya.

Biaya Hidup Yang Terjangkau

Alasan kuliah di Jerman yang selanjutnya yaitu biaya hidup di Jerman yang cukup terjagkau bila dibandingkan negara yang berada di benua Eropa lainnya. Di Jerman biasanya banyak mendapatkan potongan harga. Misal, menonton film, melihat pertunjukkan musik, dan tempat-tempat hiburan lainnya. Tidak sampai disitu saja, Untuk biaya transportasi, biaya sewa tempat tinggal pun mahasiswa di Jerman diberikan potongan harga. Semua potongan harga tersebut bukan hanya berlaku untuk mahasiswa internasional, tetapi juga berlaku untuk mahasiswa lokal. Jadi, untuk membayar semua itu, Anda hanya perlu menunjukkan kartu mahasiswa dan Anda akan langsung mendapatkan potongan harga.

Tidak Ada Biaya Sekolah

Belajar di Jerman pada tingkat sarjana GRATIS. Bahkan sebagai siswa internasional, kamu tidak perlu membayar biaya di Jerman karena mereka dibebaskan untuk semua negara, tidak hanya siswa domestik. Faktanya, jika kamu menyelesaikan studi sarjana kamu di sebuah institusi Jerman, kamu bahkan mungkin memenuhi syarat untuk program pascasarjana gratis juga. Tanpa beban harus membayar uang sekolah, ini memberi kamu uang tambahan untuk akomodasi, bahan belajar, bersosialisasi, dan menjelajahi tempat-tempat terdekat! Seperti yang bisa kamu bayangkan, tanpa biaya berarti Jerman telah menjadi magnet bagi siswa internasional. Meskipun hal ini membuat negara semakin menarik, namun juga membuatnya kompetitif.

Lingkungan Internasional

Jerman adalah pusat bagi siswa internasional dan lebih dari 12% populasi siswa di institusi adalah internasional. Banyak juga yang tetap mengejar karir di negara itu setelah lulus. Di luar kelas, kamu akan menemukan Jerman sebagai negara multikultural yang merangkul bakat internasional. Itu juga terletak di jantung Eropa memungkinkan akses mudah dan perjalanan ke negara-negara Eropa lainnya, di mana kamu dapat menemukan budaya baru dan mengunjungi tempat-tempat terkenal.

Memiliki Kualitas Yang Diakui Dunia

Di jerman terdapat ratusan universitas dan semuanya terakreditasi baik. Sehingga semua universitas di Jerman memiliki kualitas yang baik dan sangat bermutu. Hal ini dibuktikan banyak universitas di Jerman yang masuk ke dalam 100 besar universitas terbaik di dunia. idn play Uniknya di Jerman, kehadiran Anda di kelas tidak diperhitungkan untuk menentukan nilai Anda. Selain itu, tugas harian Anda juga tidak diperhitungkan untuk menentukan nilai. Tugas harian yang diberikan kepada dosen hanya bertujuan untuk memantapkan ilmu yang diserap agar nantiya Anda dapat mengingat materi yang diajarkan dan akan mempermudah Anda dalam ujian akhir nanti. Jadi, di Jerman yang bisa menentukan nilai Anda yaitu berupa mampu atau tidaknya Anda dalam menjawab soal Ujian.

What is Outsourcing? Definition of Outsourcing, Outsourcing Meaning – The Economic Times

Outsourcing is when a company hires a third party to perform their task; in other words, when a company employs another company to fulfilling its tasks, it is termed outsourcing. In 1989, it was first recognised as a business strategy, and later, in the 1990s, it became a fundamental part of the business. Let’s get to know more about this technique and its pros and cons.

What is Outsourcing?
According to the Outsourcing definition, it is a technique of appointing another firm or company for a specific task. To simplify, we can say that it is the business practice to set specific third-party to give services previously done by the company’s staff. The foremost cause of doing so is to cut down the costs and increase the company’s profitability. Mahjong Ways 3 It also involves the distribution of labour so that the company outsourcing can focus on more important subjects. It is a matter of controversy in many countries. Some believe that it causes a decline in domestic jobs, whereas some believe that it allows the business to assign assets to the companies where they can be most effectively used.

Pros of Outsourcing
It has proven to be an effective measure of distributing resources to the companies where they can effectively utilise them, which means allotting tasks to those companies that are specialists. Moreover, it enables the company to complete their tasks for lesser money. Outsourcing allows the companies to focus on more important things after allotting others to the third party. Outsourcing has been an excellent choice for Apple. It only focuses on developing new software and designs and outsources its components to the other parties. Thus, we can say that it can be a very effective technique for business and competition if appropriately managed.

Cons of Outsourcing
It has been a cause of the loss of several domestic jobs, especially in the manufacturing sector. As the outsourced services are not in complete control of the company, it can lead to the production of lower quality products or services. Moreover, there could be a delay in completing projects due to a lack of communication between the company and the third party. Signing agreements for it with other companies take extra effort and time. If the third party has access to confidential information, then it can be a severe threat to the company outsourcing.

Examples of Outsourcing
Many companies outsourced almost all administrative tasks such as database administration or invoicing to other developing nations.

Apple: The renowned company Apple outsourced most of the production of its iPhones to many other firms. A firm named Foxconn is supposed to manufacture the final iPhone. Moreover, Apple also outsources several products such as mobile DRAM from Samsung. Apple can focus on more important things by outsourcing basic tasks, such as developing new software and designs to compete with other competitors.

From the 1990s to the 2000s, there was a significant movement of call centres in several developing nations such as Indonesia, India and the Philippines. The call centres involve basic queries such as technical issues. However, many companies moved back to their call centres after receiving negative feedback from their customers. The non-proficiency of the English language was one of the major causes of doing so.

IT industry also has a great significance in outsourcing. Let’s say that a cement company wants to create an app to connect with its customers directly. However, they didn’t know much about creating an app. In this case, it will be much better to outsource this task to another firm that excels in it.

What is Outsourcing?
It is the method of appointing another company to fulfil the company’s tasks, or simply it is the business practice to select a particular third party to give services previously done by the company’s staff.

Name some of the types of outsourcing?
Some of the types of outsourcing are as follows:

  • Operational outsourcing
  • Professional outsourcing
  • Project outsourcing
  • Process outsourcing
  • IT outsourcing
  • Manufacturing outsourcing

What is the reason behind outsourcing?
It allows the company to focus on a more critical task after appointing another company to outsource other tasks. Moreover, it has proved to be a cost-effective measure. It is an essential practice for running a successful business as there are specific points where a company needs help or guidance from other companies that excel at it. For example, a restaurant owner might want an IT expert to create an app or website for their business.

Which company was the first to start outsourcing?
Computer companies were the first to start it.

State some of the disadvantages of outsourcing?
Some of the disadvantages of outsourcing are as follows:

  • Lack of communication
  • Delay of the project
  • No complete control over the third-party actions
  • Language and time zone barriers

Disclaimer: This content is authored by an external agency. The views expressed here are that of the respective authors/ entities and do not represent the views of Economic Times (ET). ET does not guarantee, vouch for or endorse any of its contents nor is responsible for them in any manner whatsoever. Please take all steps necessary to ascertain that any information and content provided is correct, updated and verified. ET hereby disclaims any and all warranties, express or implied, relating to the report and any content therein.

What is outsourcing? Definitions, benefits, challenges, processes, advice

Outsourcing can bring big benefits, but risks and challenges abound when negotiating and managing outsourcing relationships. Here’s what you need to know to ensure your IT outsourcing initiatives s쳮d.

Outsourcing definition

Outsourcing is a business practice in which services or job functions are hired out to a third party on a contract or ongoing basis. In IT, an outsourcing initiative with a technology provider can involve a range of operations, from the entirety of the IT function to discrete, easily defined components, such as disaster recovery, network services, software development, or QA testing.

Companies may choose to https://shravskitchen.com/ outsource services onshore (within their own country), nearshore (to a neighboring country or one in the same time zone), or offshore (to a more distant country). Nearshore and offshore outsourcing have traditionally been pursued to save costs.

Outsourcing services

Business process outsourcing (BPO) is an overarching term for the outsourcing of a specific business process task, such as payroll. BPO is often divided into two categories: back-office BPO, which includes internal business functions such as billing or purchasing, and front-office BPO, which includes customer-related services such as marketing or tech support.

IT outsourcing is a subset of business process outsourcing, and it falls traditionally into one of two categories: infrastructure outsourcing and application outsourcing. Infrastructure outsourcing can include service desk capabilities, data center outsourcing, network services, managed security operations, or overall infrastructure management. Application outsourcing may include new application development, legacy system maintenance, testing and QA services, and packaged software implementation and management.

Today, however, IT outsourcing can also include relationships with providers of software-, infrastructure-, and platforms-as-a-service. These cloud services are increasingly offered not only by traditional outsourcing providers but by global and niche software vendors or even industrial companies offering technology-enabled services.

For more on the latest trends in outsourcing, see “7 hot IT outsourcing trends — and 7 going cold.”

Outsourcing pros and cons

The business case for outsourcing varies by situation, but the benefits and risks of outsourcing often include the following:

IT outsourcing models and pricing

The appropriate model for an IT service is determined by the service provided. Most outsourcing contracts have been billed on a time and materials or fixed price basis. But as outsourcing services have matured to include strategic transformation and innovation initiatives, contractual approaches have evolved to include managed services and outcome-based arrangements.

The most common ways to structure an outsourcing engagement include:

Outsourcing vs. offshoring

The term outsourcing is often used interchangeably — and incorrectly — with offshoring, usually by those in a heated debate. But offshoring is a subset of outsourcing wherein a company outsources services to a third party in a country other than the one in which the client company is based, typically to take advantage of lower labor costs. This subject continues to be charged politically because offshore outsourcing is more likely to result in layoffs.

Outsourcing of jobs

Estimates of jobs displaced or jobs created due to offshoring tend to vary widely due to lack of reliable data. In some cases, global companies set up their own captive offshore IT service centers to reduce costs or access skills. Some roles typically offshored include software development, application support and management, maintenance, testing, help desk/technical support, database development or management, and infrastructure support.

In recent years, IT service providers increased investments in IT delivery centers in the US, according to a report from Everest Group. Offshore outsourcing providers have also increased their hiring of US IT professionals to gird against potential increased restrictions on the H-1B visas they use to bring offshore workers to the US to work on client sites.

Some industry experts point out that increased automation and robotic capabilities may actually eliminate more IT jobs than offshore outsourcing.

Outsourcing risks and challenges

The failure rate of outsourcing relationships remains high, ranging from 40% to 70%. At the heart of the problem is the inherent conflict of interest in any outsourcing arrangement. The client seeks better service, often at lower costs, than it would get doing the work itself. The vendor, however, wants to make a profit. That tension must be managed closely to ensure a successful outcome for both client and vendor. A service level agreement (SLA) is one lever for navigating this conflict — when implemented correctly. An SLA is a contract between an IT services provider and a customer that specifies, usually in measurable terms, what services the vendor will furnish. Service levels are determined at the beginning of any outsourcing relationship and are used to measure and monitor a supplier’s performance.

For more on outsourcing contracts, see “11 keys to a successful outsourcing relationship” and “7 tips for managing an IT outsourcing contract.”

Another cause of outsourcing failure is the rush to outsource as a “quick fix” cost-cutting maneuver rather than an investment designed to enhance capabilities, expand globally, increase agility and profitability, or bolster competitive advantage.

Generally speaking, risks increase as the boundaries between client and vendor responsibilities blur and the scope of responsibilities expands. Whatever the type of outsourcing, the relationship will succeed only if both the vendor and the client achieve expected benefits.

See also: “9 IT outsourcing mistakes to avoid” and “10 early warning signs of IT outsourcing disaster.”

Types of outsourcing

Many years ago, the multi-billion-dollar megadeal for one vendor hit an all-time high, but wholesale outsourcing proved difficult to manage for many companies. These days, CIOs have embraced the multi-vendor approach, incorporating services from several best-of-breed vendors.

Multisourcing, however, is not without challenges. The customer must have mature governance and vendor management practices in place. In contract negotiations, CIOs need to spell out that vendors must cooperate or else risk losing the job. CIOs need to find qualified staff with financial as well as technical skills to help run a project management office or some other body that can manage the outsourcing portfolio.

The rise of digital transformation has initiated a shift away from siloed IT services. As companies embrace new development methodologies and infrastructure choices, many standalone IT service areas no longer make sense. Some IT service providers seek to become one-stop shops for clients through brokerage services or partnership agreements, offering clients a full spectrum of services from best-in-class providers.

How to select a service provider

Selecting a service provider is a difficult decision, and no one outsourcer will be an exact fit for your needs. Trade-offs will be necessary.

To make an informed decision, articulate what you want from the outsourcing relationship to extract the most important criteria you seek. It’s important to figure this out before soliciting outsourcers, as they will come in with their own ideas of what’s best for your organization, based largely on their own capabilities and strengths.

Some examples of the questions you’ll need to consider include:

  • What’s more important to you: the total amount of savings an outsourcer can provide you or how quickly they can cut your costs?
  • Do you want broad capabilities or expertise in a specific area?
  • Do you want low, fixed costs or more variable price options?

Once you define and prioritize your needs, you’ll be better able to decide what trade-offs are worth making.

Outsourcing advisers

Many organizations bring in a sourcing consultant to help establish requirements and priorities. Third-party expertise can help, but it’s important to research the adviser well. Some consultants may have a vested interested in getting you to pursue outsourcing rather than helping you figure out if outsourcing is a good option for your business. A good adviser can help an inexperienced buyer through the vendor-selection process, aiding them in steps like conducting due diligence, choosing providers to participate in the RFP process, creating a model or scoring system for evaluating responses, and making the final decision.

For more advice, see “Outsourcing advisors: 6 tips for selecting the right one.”

Business Plan: What It Is, What’s Included, and How to Write One

What Is a Business Plan?

A business plan is a document that details a company’s goals and how it intends to achieve them. Business plans can be of benefit to both startups and well-established companies. For startups, a business plan can be essential for winning over potential lenders and investors. Established businesses can find one useful for staying on track and not losing sight of their goals. This article explains what an effective business plan needs to include and how to write one.

Key Takeaways

  • A business plan is a document describing a company’s business activities and how it plans to achieve its goals.
  • Startup companies use agen bola terpercaya business plans to get off the ground and attract outside investors.
  • For established companies, a business plan can help keep the executive team focused on and working toward the company’s short- and long-term objectives.
  • There is no single format that a business plan must follow, but there are certain key elements that most companies will want to include.

Understanding Business Plans

Any new business should have a business plan in place prior to beginning operations. In fact, banks and venture capital firms often want to see a business plan before they’ll consider making a loan or providing capital to new businesses.

Even if a business isn’t looking to raise additional money, a business plan can help it focus on its goals. A 2017 Harvard Business Review article reported that, “Entrepreneurs who write formal plans are 16% more likely to achieve viability than the otherwise identical nonplanning entrepreneurs.”1

Ideally, a business plan should be reviewed and updated periodically to reflect any goals that have been achieved or that may have changed. An established business that has decided to move in a new direction might create an entirely new business plan for itself.

There are numerous benefits to creating (and sticking to) a well-conceived business plan. These include being able to think through ideas before investing too much money in them and highlighting any potential obstacles to success. A company might also share its business plan with trusted outsiders to get their objective feedback. In addition, a business plan can help keep a company’s executive team on the same page about strategic action items and priorities.

Business plans, even among competitors in the same industry, are rarely identical. However, they often have some of the same basic elements, as we describe below.

While it’s a good idea to provide as much detail as necessary, it’s also important that a business plan be concise enough to hold a reader’s attention to the end.

How to Write a Business Plan

While there are any number of templates that you can use to write a business plan, it’s best to try to avoid producing a generic-looking one. Let your plan reflect the unique personality of your business.

Many business plans use some combination of the sections below, with varying levels of detail, depending on the company.

Common Elements of a Business Plan

The length of a business plan can vary greatly from business to business. Regardless, it’s best to fit the basic information into a 15- to 25-page document. Other crucial elements that take up a lot of space—such as applications for patents—can be referenced in the main document and attached as appendices.

These are some of the most common elements in many business plans:

  • Executive summary: This section introduces the company and includes its mission statement along with relevant information about the company’s leadership, employees, operations, and locations.
  • Products and services: Here, the company should describe the products and services it offers or plans to introduce. That might include details on pricing, product lifespan, and unique benefits to the consumer. Other factors that could go into this section include production and manufacturing processes, any relevant patents the company may have, as well as proprietary technology. Information about research and development (R&D) can also be included here.
  • Market analysis: A company needs to have a good handle on the current state of its industry and the existing competition. This section should explain where the company fits in, what types of customers it plans to target, and how easy or difficult it may be to take market share from incumbents.
  • Marketing strategy: This section can describe how the company plans to attract and keep customers, including any anticipated advertising and marketing campaigns. It should also describe the distribution channel or channels it will use to get its products or services to consumers.
  • Financial plans and projections: Established businesses can include financial statements, balance sheets, and other relevant financial information. New businesses can provide financial targets and estimates for the first few years. Your plan might also include any funding requests you’re making.


The best business plans aren’t generic ones created from easily accessed templates. A company should aim to entice readers with a plan that demonstrates its uniqueness and potential for success.

2 Types of Business Plans

Business plans can take many forms, but they are sometimes divided into two basic categories: traditional and lean startup. According to the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA), the traditional business plan is the more common of the two.2

  • Traditional business plans: These plans tend to be much longer than lean startup plans and contain considerably more detail. As a result they require more work on the part of the business, but they can also be more persuasive (and reassuring) to potential investors.
  • Lean startup business plans: These use an abbreviated structure that highlights key elements. These business plans are short—as short as one page—and provide only the most basic detail. If a company wants to use this kind of plan, it should be prepared to provide more detail if an investor or a lender requests it.2

Why Do Business Plans Fail?

A business plan is not a surefire recipe for success. The plan may have been unrealistic in its assumptions and projections to begin with. Markets and the overall economy might change in ways that couldn’t have been foreseen. A competitor might introduce a revolutionary new product or service. All of this calls for building some flexibility into your plan, so you can pivot to a new course if needed.

How Often Should a Business Plan Be Updated?

How frequently a business plan needs to be revised will depend on the nature of the business. A well-established business might want to review its plan once a year and make changes if necessary. A new or fast-growing business in a fiercely competitive market might want to revise it more often, such as quarterly.

What Does a Lean Startup Business Plan Include?

The lean startup business plan is an option when a company prefers to give a quick explanation of its business. For example, a brand-new company may feel that it doesn’t have a lot of information to provide yet.

Sections can include: a value proposition; the company’s major activities and advantages; resources such as staff, intellectual property, and capital; a list of partnerships; customer segments; and revenue sources.

The Bottom Line

A business plan can be useful to companies of all kinds. But as a company grows and the world around it changes, so too should its business plan. So don’t think of your business plan as carved in granite but as a living document designed to evolve with your business.

Working Memory Underpins Cognitive Development, Learning, and Education

Working memory is the retention of a small amount of information in a readily accessible form. It facilitates planning, comprehension, reasoning, and problem-solving. I examine the historical roots and conceptual development of the concept and the theoretical and practical implications of current debates about working memory mechanisms. Then I explore the nature of cognitive developmental improvements in working memory, the role of working memory in learning, and some potential implications of working memory and its development for the education of children and adults. The use of working memory is quite ubiquitous in human thought, but the best way to improve education using what we know about working memory is still controversial. I hope to provide some directions for research and educational practice.

What is Working Memory? An Introduction and Review

Working memory is the small amount of information that can be held in mind and used in the execution of cognitive tasks, in contrast with long-term memory, the vast amount of information saved in one’s life. Working memory is one of the most widely-used terms in psychology. It has often been connected or related to intelligence, information processing, executive function, comprehension, problem-solving, and learning, in people ranging from infancy to old age and in all sorts of animals. This concept is so omnipresent in the field that it requires careful examination both historically and in terms of definition, to establish its key characteristics and boundaries. By weaving together history, a little philosophy, and empirical work in psychology, in this opening section I hope to paint a clear picture of the concept of working memory. In subsequent sections, implications of working memory for cognitive development, learning, and education will be discussed in turn, though for these broad areas it is only feasible to touch on certain examples.

Some researchers emphasize the possibility of training working memory to improve learning and education. In this chapter, I take the complementary view that we must learn how to adjust the materials to facilitate learning and education with the working memory abilities that the learner has. Organizing knowledge, for example, reduces one’s memory load because the parts don’t have to be held in mind independently.

Take, for example, the possibility of doing some scouting ahead so that you will know what this article is about, making your task of reading easier. If you tried to read through the headings of this article, you might have trouble remembering them (placing them all in working memory) so as to anticipate how they fit together. If you read Figure 1, though, it is an attempt to help you organize the information. If it helps you associate the ideas to one another to build a coherent framework, it should help you read by reducing the working-memory load you experience while reading. In doing so, you are building a rich structure to associate the headings with one another in long-term memory (e.g., Ericsson & Kintsch, 1995), which reduces the number of ideas that would have to be held independently in working memory in order to remember the organization.

Early History of Working Memory Research

In 1690, John Locke distinguished between contemplation, or holding an idea in mind, and memory, or the power to revive an idea after it has disappeared from the mind (Logie, 1996). The holding in mind is limited to a few concepts at once and reflects what is now called working memory, as opposed to the possibly unlimited store of knowledge from a lifetime that is now called long-term memory. Working memory can be defined as the small amount of information that can be held in an especially accessible state and used in cognitive tasks Baccarat Online Uang Asli

Philosophers have long been interested in the limits of what can be contemplated, as noted by a leading British economist and logician, William Stanley Jevons. In an article in Science in 1871, he mused (p. 281): “It is well known that the mind is unable through the eye to estimate any large number of objects without counting them successively. A small number, for instance three or four, it can certainly comprehend and count by an instantaneous and apparently single act of mental attention.” Then he devised a little experiment to test this hypothesis, on himself. On each trial, he casually reached into a jar full of beans, threw several beans onto a table, and tried to estimate their number without counting. After 1,027 trials, he made no errors for sets of 3 or 4 beans, with some small errors for sets of 5 beans, and with increasing magnitudes of error as a function of set size thereafter, up to 15 beans. Despite the problematic nature of the method (in that the bean thrower was also the bean judge), the finding that normal adults typically can keep in mind only about 3 or 4 items has been replicated many times in modern research, using methods similar to Jevons (e.g., Mandler & Shebo, 1982) and using many other methods (Cowan, 2001). The limited amount that could be held in mind at once played an important role in early experimental psychology, e.g., in the early experimental work of Hermann Ebbinghaus (1885/1913) and Wilhelm Wundt (1894/1998). On the American front, William James (1890) wrote about a distinction between primary memory, the items in consciousness and the trailing edge of what is perceived in the world, and secondary memory, the items in storage but not currently in consciousness. Recent investigators have considered multiple possible reasons why primary memory might be limited to just a few items at once, including biological accounts based on the need to avoid confusion between concurrent objects in memory, and evolutionary and teleological accounts based on ideas about what capacity might be ideal for learning and memory retrieval (Cowan, 2010; Sweller, 2011), but as yet the reason is unknown.